Port Wine Glossary

Angel’s share
Due to physical influences, Port wines partially evaporate during maturation in the barrel. In the first years, the volume of evaporated liquid is up to 2 %. Both the alcohol and the liquid component evaporate at more or less the same rate.

Substances such as sugars, acids and aromatic compounds remain in the wine, which tend to become more and more concentrated. For example, Colheitas or age-indicated Tawny 40+ years old will be significantly concentrated.

The mentioned part of the evaporated wine is called Angel’s Share, because the fumes rise to the ceiling and disappear in the sky, where they are received by angels.
Blending is one of the top arts in Port wine production. Each the winery has a so-called „Blender“ in its team, it is a person who can unmistakably mix different wines together to create a harmonious combination, specific to that winery. They are used in both Reserve production and age-indicated Tawnies or classic Vintage.

The purpose of blending is to express balance or, for example, fullness in Port wine. The top blender must always have experience, skills and intuition.
Maturation is an integral part of Port wine production. In order for Port wine to be able to mature for many years you need high quality barrels. Therefore, being a Cooper is a highly valued profession in wineries, which is usually inherited from father to son.
Douro Demarcated Region
The Douro Demarcated Region delimited by the Douro was officially delimited in 1756 by the Marquis of Pombal. Only in this area in the Douro Valley can vines for Port wine be grown. In this DOC area with a total area of 250,000 hectares, we find 33,000 farmers working in 46,000 vineyards.
Portuguese term for „Winemaker“.
Fermentation is the process by which yeast converts simple sugars (glucose and fructose) into alcohol and carbon dioxide, which escapes into the air. At this stage, alcohol is formed and the vine must slowly turn into wine. Due attention must be paid to this process. Fermentation can take place in natural granite tanks (lagar), but today stainless steel tanks are mostly used.
A glass decanter with a round bottom, to which a wooden base is an integral part, thanks to which it does not tip over.

Usually, the hoggit is placed to the left of the host, who sends it clockwise to another guest to pour Port wine. This continues until the hoggit lands at its host again. Due to its round bottom, it is not possible for the decanter to get stuck with one of the guests and stay with him, as often happened to the Bishop of Norwich.
IVDP (Instituto do Vinho do Porto e Douro)
The mission of IVDP is to promote the control of the quality and quantity of Port wines, regulating the production process, as well as the protection and defense of the Douro and Porto designations of origin and the geographical indication of the Douro region.
In the traditional method of Port wine production, the berries of the vine are collected in a granite tank – lagar, where the fermentation then takes place. The berries are crushed either with the help of human feet or modernly with the use of robotic systems.
Serra do Marão is a mountain range in northern Portugal – in the Norte region. With a maximum height of 1,415 m, it is the 6th highest mountain range in mainland Portugal. The highest mountain is Marão, at the top of which is an astronomical observatory and a complex of radio television transmitters. Forest-free flat ridges in the highest parts of the mountains have recently been used to house a large number of wind farms.

Its location separates the humid climate coming from the Atlantic Ocean and protects the Douro Valley from frequent rains.
Old Tawny Port
It is usually referred to as age-indicated Tawny (Tawny 10, 20, 30 and 40+ Years Old) or it is called Colheita. In some cases, his age may be over 100 years.
Pipe (Pipa) – 550 l
Pipa is the Portuguese term for a 550 liter cask. It is made of oak wood. Its rate was introduced in 1970 for the needs of world trade. Tawny-type Port wine matures in pipas barrels.
In the Douro Valley you will find many farms from small farms to large wineries. They are famous properties from the 18th and 19th centuries, but we also know modern Quinta such as Quinta de la Rosa.

They provide the background of the vineyard for viticultural work or are renovated into the form of sometimes very luxurious hotels.
Rabelo boat
It is a wooden ship carrying port wine barrels from the Douro Valley to Vila Nova de Gaia, where port wine matured.

Now this transport of wine is no longer used, so the rabelo boats are moored on the shores of Vila Nova de Gaia and are more of a tourist destination.
The vineyards in Douro are built on a mountainous subsoil, mostly of schist. Due to its properties, this rock greatly contributes to the high sugar content of the local vines, as it retains heat during the day, which it then transfers to the plant on a cold night.

The construction of vineyards in such a mountainous subsoil is very complicated, so there is a need for mechanization or even blasting of the rock.

However, the fragile schist allows the vine to find water with its roots at a depth of up to 10 meters. 
It is a traditional way of crushing vine berries in lagares. It has several stages and the purpose is to crush the contents of the berry, but not the kernels. Human legs are best for this. After a certain time, fermentation takes place in the lagar.
Port wine Vintage is bottled unfiltered, so over time, sediment appears in the bottle. It must be decanted when serving.
Vinification is the whole process of wine production from grape processing to wine bottling.
In the fermentation process, single-celled organisms are essential, which convert grape juice into wine that metabolizes sugar into alcohol.

Port wine contains a large amount of grape sugar, which is used for fermentation, is stopped before a larger amount of grape juice is fermented. At some point, add the brandy to the wine and kill the yeast.

What is Port Wine
Styles of Port Wine
Port Wine production
History of Port Wine
Port Wine origin